Eugene Bullard, the first African American combat pilot. Born in Georgia, Bullard left for Europe in his teens (he later claimed to have seen his father narrowly escape lynching). He worked as a boxer in Paris, then joined the French Army during World War I. Bullard was severely wounded at Verdun, and after he recovered he joined the French Air Service. Once the United States joined the war, Americans fighting for France were mostly absorbed into the American forces, but because the Army Air Corps was whites only, Bullard remained in the French army. After the war, Bullard remained in France until the German invasion in the Second World War, when he and his daughters fled Paris. Bullard took part in the defense of Orleans but was wounded and escaped over the border into Spain, and from there to New York.
In 1949, Bullard was attending a concert in Harlem that was organized by entertainer and activist Paul Robeson to benefit the Civil Rights Congress. In what was later known as the Peekskill Riots, performers and attendees of the concert, Bullard among them, were savagely beaten by a mob that included members of the local and state police. Bullard’s beating was captured on film, but none of his attackers were ever prosecuted.
Bullard died in 1961 of stomach cancer in relative anonymity, and was buried with full military honors in the French War Veteran’s section of Flushing Cemetery. He had been a recipient of 15 decorations from the government of France, including being made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor, France’s highest award.
The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere by Grant Wood.
He imbued American Regionalist landscape painting with a particular, distinctive character, through the use of clearly defined contours and a geometrical treatment of volume and form. His works often use crayon, chalk and charcoal on brown wrapping paper of the type used by butchers. The brown ground heightens the warm tonalities of the red- or ochre-coloured chalks. His paintings of the people of the American Mid-West are suffused with his highly personal, somewhat idealised Regionalism, fuelled by local fables and legends. The resulting images are a tribute to the American pioneers, to rural life, and to the value of labour over money. His precise attention to detail is reminiscent of the work of Holbein, but he adds a satirical flavour, and a sense of unreality that approaches that of the Surrealists.
We’re examining inspiring landscapes this July on the Oxford Academic Tumblr.
Image credit: The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere. Grant Wood. 1931. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Public domain via WikiArt.
Apollo 11 Flight Plan
The flight plan for Apollo 11 was a minute-by-minute time line of activities for the mission crew—Neil Armstrong, Mike Collins, and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin—and Mission Control in Houston. The flight was launched July 16, 1969. Touchdown on the moon took place, as scheduled, on July 20, 102 hours, 47 minutes, and 11 seconds after launch from Cape Kennedy. The astronauts spent 21 hours and 36 minutes on the moon, and returned to Earth on July 24.
From the series: Pre-Shuttle Flight Data Files, 1968 - 1977. Records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1903 - 2006
These whimsical images come from the mind of Louis Crusius, a physician and artist who was born in Wisconsin and later moved to St. Louis, Missouri. The Antikamnia Chemical Company used Crusius’ images in a series of calendars they published from 1897-1901, which they sent to physicians who could prove their medical standing.
The company, whose name means “opposed to pain,” was known for manufacturing a patent medicine called Antikamnia tablets. Like most patent medicines of the time, the ingredients in the tablets could have ill effects - the tablets contained acetanilide, which could cause cyanosis (a condition in which the skin becomes blood due to insufficient oxygen).